Brought to you as a public service of the Open Spectrum Foundation (Stichting Open Spectrum), Amsterdam - Prague
"Espectro aberto e compartilhamento," (Open Spectrum and sharing) por Sérgio Amadeu da Silveira, Com Ciência: Revista Eletrônica de Jornalism Científico, No. 81 - 10/10/2006, in Portuguese. A professor at Casper Líbero College introduces readers to the concept of Open Spectrum. This issue of the Review has a unifying theme: "Dossiê: Democratização da comunicação" (Dossier: democratization of communication).
"Conselheira quer que áreas técnicas refaçam análise do uso eficiente do espectro" [Council wants to redo technical analysis of efficient use of spectrum], by Mariana Mazza, Teletime, 21 September 2010, in Portuguese: Anatel's board is considering ways to re-define "spectrum efficiency" before setting rules to encourage it (an earlier definition used in a band survey was criticized for being limited to channel occupancy, not giving sufficient weight to socioeconomic costs and benefits).
"Brazil: Lula to Decriminalise Unlicensed Community Radios," Article 19 press release in English, 10 February 2009: "In January 2009, Brazilian President Lula sent a bill to Congress which would decriminalise the operation of a community radio without a license. This is a long-standing demand by community radio associations and freedom of expression organisations in Brazil... "
"Brazil currently has 4,035 Wi-Fi hotspots - research,"TelecomPaper, 11 March 2011: "In Brazil, there are currently 4,035 Wi-Fi hot spots, centered in the southeast and south of the country, with heavy concentration in Sao Paulo, according to the latest data from Teleco. In January and February, the number of Wi-Fi hotspots grew by less than 1 percent... In states where there are hotspots - Rio de Janeiro, Paraná, Federal District, Rio Grande do Sul and Minas Gerais - there were no changes in the period under examination."
"Viagem de ônibus do Paraná para São Paulo ganha Wi-Fi" [Bus travel from Parana to Sao Paulo gains Wi-Fi], Folha Online, 13 January 2009, in Portuguese. Translated excerpts: The company Brasil Sul Road Lines announced the offer of Wi-Fi Internet access for bus travellers through 3G modems mounted on two buses. Mobile Wi-Fi is still just getting started, but the company says 3G technology makes the service feasible, technically and economically. The 2 buses on which the service is offered make 60 trips each month, carrying about a thousand passengers for 900 kilometers. The trip takes about 14 hours.
"TAM to offer Wi-Fi connections in international flights," by Roberta Prescott, RCR Wireless Americas, 26 July 2011: "...OnAir connectivity services is based on Inmarsat technology SwiftBroadband (SBB), and will be implemented in 80 aircraft in the coming years, including Boeing 777-300ER and Airbus A330. By early 2012, all 31 domestic flights aircraft should be equipped with on-board connectivity, and TAM's international fleet will be equipped in the second half of 2012..."
"Large-scale Deployment of WiMAX and WiFi with Satellite Backhaul in Brazil,"Cellular News, 25 November 2008: "Hughes Network Systems says that it has won a public tender and signed a 3-year contract to deploy a turnkey broadband network solution that combines WiMAX and WiFi access technologies with satellite backhaul in the Brazilian State of Amazonas. Using this, PRODAM will provide high-speed wireless Internet access service to customers throughout all 61 municipalities of Amazonas... The contract calls for completion of the installation process within twelve months. In the first phase, 15 municipalities will receive the service, which includes the WiMAX network connecting various public agencies and a Wi-Fi hotspot for wireless public Internet access..."
"Favela em Belo Horizonte terá internet sem fio gratuita" [Slum in Belo Horizonte has free wireless Internet], Folha Online, 26 November 2007 in Portuguese. Translation: The city of Belo Horizonte will be completely covered by broadband internet and free wireless in 2008. This is what the Ministry of Communications plans... The Ministry of Communications invested US$3.5 million and the city of Belo Horizonte, about US$800,000. If the project is accomplished, Belo Horizonte will be the first Brazilian city to be completely covered by wireless Internet.
"Interferencias poem em xeque uso da faixa de 2,3 GHz,"TeleTime News, 12 August 2010 (in Portuguese): Discussions about refarming the 2.3 GHz band for use by LTE mobile systems have run into the problem of interference. Sold recently in India for 3G networks, 2.3 GHz suffers from interference from Wi-Fi networks in the adjacent band (2.4 GHz). Brazil's current users of 2.3 GHz are TV stations who transmit live programming from outside their studio (sports, concerts, etc.), and they claim to have alot of problems due to Wi-Fi.
"Brasil tendrá una nueva ley de telecomunicaciones," (Brazil will have a new telecom law) by Teresa Agrasot, AHCIET, 13 February 2007 in Spanish: an advisory group of specialists will work with the government to prepare the new law before the end of 2007. It will reflect changes in telecommunications, Internet and pay television since passage of the basic telecom law in 1997 and the broadcasting law adopted in 1962.
"Sistemas de acesso sem fio em banda larga terão de ser licenciados," ANATEL press release, 1 April 2005, in Portuguese. This summarizes and explains "Regulamento sobre condições de uso de radiofreqüências na faixa de 2.400 MHz a 2.483,5 MHz por equipamentos utilizando tecnologia de espelhamento espectral ou de multiplexação ortogonal por divisão de freqüência" (Regulation on conditions of use of radio frequencies in the band 2400 - 2483.5 MHz by equipment using spread spectrum or OFDM technology). This regulation introduces license requirements and spectrum use fees for wireless Internet access systems operating in the 2.4 GHz band at power output levels above 400 mW in cities with more than 500,000 inhabitants. WLANs have secondary status in this band; broadcast auxiliary services are the primary users. "With the new rules, the Agency intends to stimulate the migration of WLANs to the 5 GHz band..."
But the Wi-Fi/WiMAX/Bluetooth regulation published by Mexico's federal telecom commission on 22 July 2005 mentions that in Brazil's 2.4 GHz band, licenses are not required for devices radiating of up to 250mW.
"Espectro infinito!" by Renato Mintz, TVD Brasil blog, 7 April 2006, in Portuguese: "Gosto muito de novidades que te fazem repensar conceitos arraigados. Sinto que isto dá uma arejada muito grande na cabeça da gente. Esta manhã tive o prazer de cair (nem sei mais como) numa página sobre o movimento Open Spectrum. Em poucas palavras, o que eles defendem é a liberação de mais espectro para uso sem necessidade de licença, pois a tecnologia hoje já permite um compartilhamento muito eficiente, ao contrário do que acontecia no início do século XX, quando os governos passaram a administrá-lo. Leiam o FAQ, que é MUITO interessante..."