• - Radim Soukenka's authoritative English-language website about spectrum management in the Czech Republic, the EU and the ITU. The Czech version is here.
  • "Number of Wi-Fi access points in Prague 1 and Prague 2 nearly doubled year-on-year," Ernst & Young, 2 October 2007: "Our most recent survey shows that the number of access points in Prague 1 and Prague 2 almost doubled in the last twelve months, increasing to some 1,671 units... Of the 1,671 detected access points, 260 are of a HotSpot type. HotSpots are dedicated to public internet access..."
  • "Number of secured WiFi access points in Czech capital up 52% y/y on security concerns - survey," Czech Business News, 20 September 2006: "The number of secured wireless Internet (WiFi) access points increased 52% year on year (y/y) in the first and second districts of the Czech capital Prague so far in 2006, outpacing growth in the number of unsecured access points at 45% y/y, according to a new study of wireless networks by the consulting firm Ernst & Young (E&Y)... Researchers identified 876 [WiFi] access points during the survey, compared to 604 recorded last year... Prague is somewhere in the middle of the pack in terms of international comparison of the growth in WiFi access points, according to E&Y, with London and Paris in the lead with 60% y/y growth, while New York lagged with a mere 20% increase..." [Note: Districts 1 and 2 are central Prague. The E&Y survey did not count WiFi access points in the other 10 districts of Prague.]
  • "Wireless Prague" - Czech/English website of the city government's project to cover a third of Prague with 580 meshed Wi-Fi access-points.
  • "Telecoms opposed to WiFi hot spots," by Katya Zapletnyuk, Prague Post, 21 December 2005: "Prague City Hall's plan to create a free WiFi Internet network throughout the city is provoking protests from telecommunications businesses. City Hall is asking the Information Technology Ministry for 100 million Kč ($4.1 million) to finance two-thirds of the project designed to establish a free 64 kilobytes per second connection in Prague in 2006. The rest would come from City Hall and municipal districts. 'Operators who are members of our association have a very negative opinion of this plan,' said Hana Jelínková, executive director of the Association of Public Telecommunications Networks Operators (APVTS), which includes the country's top telecom providers... 'The government should support infrastructure in those places where Internet is not developed, such as small towns or villages,' she said..."
  • "WiMAX operators and Telcos battle free Wi-Fi in Brussels," WiMAX Day, 11 October 2006: "In the last month, the EU has received appeals from WiMAX and telco operators in Europe that contend that the use of free Wi-Fi is anti-competitive. Nowhere is the free Wi-Fi debate greater than in Prague, where the city administration intends to cover the entire city with free Wi-Fi access to nearly 1 million people. To achieve this, the Information Technology Ministry in Prague obtained a subsidy from EU Structural Funds of CZK 37.3 million (1.3 million Euro)..."
  • "EU regulators approve Prague municipal WiFi network," Agence France Presse (via EU Business), 30 May 2007: "EU regulators approved on Wednesday a project by Prague authorities for a free municipal wireless Internet service, but only after the scheme was modified to allow access only to public-sector websites. The European Commission launched a probe after receiving competition complaints from private operators about the project...' "
  • "Prague getting 'several hundred' free (ad-supported) hotspots" - excerpts from a Prague Post article by Paul Voosen, 10 January 2007: "Municipal plans to provide Prague residents with free wireless access have stalled, but a fast-growing Irish company is coming to the city to satisfy this demand, offering a simple system to help cafés and hotels provide free, ad-supported broadband wireless service to their customers. The first hotspot will open Jan. 20 at Café Vyšehrad, with the company planning to install 'several hundred' more hotspots this year... The company, Anacapa, operates its wireless system under the name and currently offers free wireless access at 620 locations in 14 European countries, most launched last year... Prague is continuing construction on its citywide Wi-Fi network, which will primarily serve as a resource for government services and tourism information; blanket coverage is expected by 2008. The city dropped plans to offer free public Internet access after the telecoms filed a complaint with the European Commission. The two sides are now in talks on establishing a paid system."
  • "Prague will anonymise RFID city cards," EDRI-gram, 1 August 2007: "Prague Deputy Mayor announced that following the presure of EDRI-member Iuridicum Remedium and the interpellation of the member of city parliament Petra Kolinska (Green Party) the city authorities decided that RFID chips in newly issued city cards will no longer contain personal data. This move is a reaction to the press conference Iuridicum Remedium held on 12 June 2007. At the press conference cryptologist Tomás Rosa demonstrated that first and last name as well as date of birth of the owners of the newly issued city card can be easily read by any unauthorised person from a distance of a dozen centimeters even when carried in the purse or pocket. The NGO requested city authorities to stop the project of city card immediately or at least delete personal information from the chips. Multipurposed city card (named Open Card) containing RFID chip has been distributed since the beginning of this year to the Prague citizens. City authorities claim that citizens will be able to pay with the card for parking, use it in city library, ticket on public transport and as electronic signature for communication with the Town Hall. The city of Prague has invested in the new Open Card already more than 100 million crowns (approx. 3.2 million Euro) and want to distribute the first series of 50,000 cards to the citizens by Autumn."
  • "Jak využívat rádiové kmitočty vymezené všeobecným oprávněním" - the Telecom Office's Czech-language summary of regulations for low-power/short-range devices operated under "general authorization" - which is based on...
  • "Všeobecné oprávnění č. VO-R/10/08.2005-24 k využívání rádiových kmitočtů a k provozování zařízení krátkého dosahu" - the technical specifications for low-power radio devices operating under general authorization (adopted in August 2005).
  • "Všeobecné oprávnění č. VO-R/10/05.2006-22 in Czech - May 2006 update to VO-R/10/08.2005-24, adding more license-exempt bands (169 MHz, 863/868 MHz. 1795 - 1800 MHz and the FM broadcast band because micropower re-transmitters are now permitted).
  • "Informace o provozu zarízeni RLAN v pásmu 5GHz" (Information on the outdoor operation of RLANs in the 5GHz band), Czech Telecommunications Office, 2003, in Czech.
  • "In the 5.725 - 5.875 GHz band, the [license exempt] traffic is approved only for power up to 25 mW eirp..." ---from The Implications of WiMAX for Competition and Regulation by Taylor Reynolds, OECD, 2005.
  • Prague Wireless Community Forum (in Czech).
  • Vúčako - Czech-language blog on spectrum politics and wireless telecoms.
  • "Komunitní sítě - co, kde, kdo a proč" [1] [2] [3] (Community Networks - what, where, how and why, Parts 1, 2 and 3) by Petr Kulhavy,, February-March 2003 (in Czech).
  • - directory of wireless Internet access networks in the Czech Republic.
  • - community wireless in Prague.
  • PilsFree community network in Plzen (website all in Czech).
  • "41. schůze PSP: Interpelace D. Bérové ve věci provozovatelů Wi-Fi" - a short exchange (in Czech) between the Minister of Informatics and a member of parliament about the government's new draft rules for general authorization of Wi-Fi and RLANs, released in May 2005. Apparently the draft says the only antenna authorized is the one originally supplied by the manufacturer. Another commentary on the draft rules (also critical and in Czech) is here.
  • RFID Portal (all in Czech).

Europe - Regional Overview