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  • "Ethiopian Telecommunication Agency Directive on Private Radiocommunications No.1/2005" in English and Amharic. Spread spectrum devices are subject to type approval instead of licensing, and are defined as operating in the 2.4000-2.4835 GHz, 5.1500-5.3500 GHz, or 5.4700-5.7250 GHz band. "The equipment to be used in Ethiopia shall be designed for indoor use. The maximum allowed transmitter power shall be 100 mW... No repeater station may be used to extend the radio coverage of a spread spectrum device... A spread spectrum device shall be used for an in-building or localized on-site operation. A Spread spectrum device may not be used for commercial service provision and/or Wide Area Network (WAN)..." Annex II of this Directive is the "Appplication Form for Type Approval of a Spread Spectrum Device." Oddly, it asks for the device's serial number and exact location - where it will be used?
  • Ethiopian Telecommunication Sector Performance Review by Lishan Adam, 2004 (57 pages in English): "A recent regulation issued by the Government limits any private participation in telecommunication services... the use of wireless LAN [or] terrestrial broadband wireless almost non-existent..."
  • "Foreign Firms to Study Telecom and Finance Sectors," by Issayas Mekuria, Addis Fortune, 25 December 2006 (via an American firm - Nathan Associates - has been chosen by the Ministry of Trade and Industry to study Ethiopia's telecom sector to help Ethiopian trade negotiators enter the WTO accession process equipped with arguments that the sector should remain sheltered from competition for at least eight years.
  • "US Vows to Assist 'Partial Liberalization' of ETC" by Dagnachew Teklu, The Daily Monitor, Addis Ababa, 17 February 2005: "Mr. Frank Young, US Agency for International Development (USAID) Deputy Assistant Administrator for Africa said that his government stands ready to provide assistance for the 'partial liberalization' of ETC by July 2005... He said that the US government is pleased to be a lead bilateral donor working closely with the ministry of Trade and Industry on legal and regulatory issues..."
  • "Council of Ministers Regulations No. 47/1999: To Provide for the Regulation of Telecommunication Services," Federal Negarit Gazeta, 5th Year, No. 20 (27 April 1999).
  • "Ethiopia: Stands lowest in ICT use," Addis Tribune (Ethiopia), 9 May 2003.

Africa - Regional Overview