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  • "The Spectrum Licence Raj," by Sumit K. Majumdar, Hindu Business Line, 9 January 2010: "...By licensing entry into a potentially vibrant sector, restricting it to a limited number of firms that can afford to pay up, India is re-creating the licence raj - this time the spectrum licence raj... The 1956 to 1991 licence raj was all about manufacturing capacity allocation. The Directorate-General of Technical Development was the last word on how much of a particular item could be made, how many firms and of what size could participate in certain industry segments. Others firms were shut out.... India's economy was severely constricted for over a generation because of these policies... Yet, nothing has changed. Now, spectrum capacity has become a candidate for the licence raj... The wireless phenomenon heralds new revolutions... With wireless broadband diffusion and 3G-based content services, India can march ahead in content creation and diffusion of knowledge. It might even lead Asia, and by default the world in knowledge-based enterprises. But this will not be. The licence raj has been re-invented. The country has yet again been deprived of a great opportunity to catch up with the world."
  • "Spectrum Allocation," by Jaideep Mishra, Economic Times, 11 June 2009: "The fact remains that seeming scarcity of spectrum is limiting the growth of myriad telecom products and services, mostly wireless. But then, the scarcity is largely because of outdated policies and obsolete wireless technologies. Traditionally of course, the policy of spectrum licensing was deemed essential for 'interference protection.' The result was that wireless systems got 'exclusive access' to telecom spectrum. But the fact is that such exclusive licensing is 'highly inefficient' use of spectral resources. Fortunately, recent technical developments such as mesh networks, location technologies and spectrum sensors do allow various forms of spectral sharing..."
  • "Overhaul spectrum policy," by Jaideep Mishra, TNN (via Economic Times of India), 5 November 2007: "...there would be much policy optimality in making available more unlicensed bands. It would all be for the greater good. It would promote investment and innovation in wireless services, including new business models. For instance, the policy reform would spur on innovative and ad hoc networks that improve productivity and cut down on costs. It would boost technical change in the telecom equipment space. In tandem, untangling the extant policy rigidities in spectrum allocation would shore up demand for next generation products and handsets that are 'fully loaded' and designed to make better use of available spectral resources... In the fast-evolving telecom scenario, continuing with the regulatory artifact of 'spectrum scarcity' may actually stem and indeed stultify market response in a myriad ways, and right across the board in wireless services. So doing away with the current regulatory distortions in spectrum allocations would clearly make the market more efficient..."
  • "Auction not best way to award spectrum: Sibal," by Supriya Shrinate & Joji Thomas Philip, Economic Times of India, 9 December 2010: "...'Auctions are certainly a good system, but it is yet to be established if this is can lead to a sustainable environment for the sector. We cannot have a situation such as in 1995, where companies overbid for spectrum. The very same thing can happen again, because with so many operators, everybody needs spectrum. No body can survive without it,' [Kapil Sibal, the new telecom Minister] said. Mr Sibal said that while the government may garner revenues from the auction process, this methodology would be a failure if the cost of services for the customers were to go up. The government's objective is also to ensure that tariffs remain low, he added..."
  • "Open bidding of spectrum not good for consumers," Press Trust of India (via The Business Standard), 9 December 2008
  • "The real spectrum scam," by Robert Horvitz, Financial Express, 27 November 2010: "...The government should not be attacked for failing to take billions of more rupees from spectrum users through much higher prices for radio licences. Those billions would ultimately have to come out of our pockets. What should be criticised is the government's policy of severely limiting the public's right to use the radio spectrum, creating an artificial scarcity to boost licence prices to ridiculous levels, burdening economic development and fostering corruption among those who dole out airwave access... Only public ignorance about what radio is, physically, allows this myth of government ownership to survive. In fact, the government cannot own the electromagnetic spectrum any more than it can own sunlight, air, gravity or the colour of your eyes. The radio spectrum cannot be owned - full stop... If there is anything to be learnt from a century of using radio, it is not that governments should charge users and licensees as much as possible. It is that restricting public access to radio frequencies is costly in terms of benefits lost and forgone. All Indians should be angered by the 'spectrum scam' - not because their celcos were undercharged but because their government is hoarding what isn't its - the radio spectrum."
  • "Switching tracks," by Thomas K. Thomas, The Hindu Business Line, 5 April 2010: "...Until now, Internet services on unlicensed spectrum were being deployed only in tier-3 cities where the subscriber base is not very dense. Now Tikona has dared to roll out into top cities, including highly dense cities such as Delhi and Mumbai, using the free air waves in 2.4 Ghz band and 5.8 Ghz band. Second, the quality of service on unlicensed spectrum has been a question mark due to interference from hundreds of other users for free air waves. Tikona claims to have resolved this issue by deploying some of the latest technology available. 'We are deploying wireless broadband services on the Multiple-Input and Multiple-Output (MIMO) platform using about 110 Mhz of free spectrum. Though there are multiple users on this band, we have taken care of interference issues through a unique network architecture... The company has already set up 16,000 receivers, which are in the form of micro base stations, and plans are afoot to increase it to 90,000 this year. So, if Tikona can use free spectrum to offer high-speed broadband, why can't others?..."
  • India: "Government mulls additional Rs 25,000 crore spending on rural Wi-Fi," PTI, Economic Times
  • "Quantitative Assessment of TV White Space in India," by Gaurang Naik, Sudesh Singhal, Animesh Kumar and Abhay Karandikar, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, 31 October 2013: "the average available TV white space in the UHF TV band is shown to be more than 100MHz! ... four TV band channels (or 32MHz) are sufficient to provide the existing UHF TV band coverage in India."
  • "A community radio station for less than Rs 1000," Frederick Noronha interviews Arun Mehta, InfoChange, February 2006: "Arun Mehta (52) is an engineer-activist from India. He moderates various discussion groups in cyberspace and is also CTO (Chief Technical Officer) of the network...:

    "...We are looking at innovative uses of low-powered FM... In India, we are relying on the fact that 50 milliwatt FM transmitters are commonly available in the market; we assume the use of this is legal. So, in 2002-2003, we set up a 50 milliwatt transmitter in Oravakal village in Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh. It's possible to set up a simple, low-powered community radio station for under Rs 1,000 (US$25).

    "The other application we've deployed is simultaneous translation. For example, at the Asian Social Forum in Hyderabad in 2003, we did simultaneous translation for more than 8,000 people. In three languages - Telugu, Hindi and English. We put up three low-powered FM radio transmitters in each hall, one for each language, all set to broadcast at different frequencies. Participants were given tiny Chinese-made FM radios with earphones. Each participant tuned the radio to his or her language's frequency, and then could walk around, even get a cup of coffee, and still keep listening. Basically, this was simultaneous translation for under US$1 per participant. When you're talking about 8,000 participants, you can't do (multiple-language) translation in any other way that's affordable...

    "This is very simple, inexpensive technology. The parts that go into the 50 milliwatt transmitter are under US$2. They are available in any small town where radio and TVs are repaired."

    "What are the legal issues blocking the deployment of such solutions in India today?"

    "In India we have the most absurd system of spectrum management. If you go strictly by the letter of the law you need to get clearance from 34 governments before putting up a tubelight in your house! Anything above 1 milliwatt requires a licence. There are only two exceptions - certain kinds of cordless telephones and the 2.4 gigahertz wifi. The entire approach to the handling of spectrum is a huge millstone around all our development activities. Because in rural areas you're not able to take wires to people's homes. You need wireless. And the government has a complete stranglehold over it..."

    "What's the way forward then, in such a situation?"

    "The dilemma for the government in handling spectrum is that it basically knows just two ways. One is that you auction out the spectrum. In India, you know what a terrible experience that is. Take the case of FM licences or basic services. The whole thing is a mess. The other way is a 'beauty contest'. You try and identify which are the better applications of technology and allocate spectrum to those. The problem here is that it becomes a total pull-and-push game of vested interests. And, you're expecting the government to play technology god, which is ridiculous in this day and age.

    "The only sensible way to deal with spectrum is 'open spectrum'. What governments can do is to lay down rules for social behaviour - ensuring that you maintain low power levels, that you don't hog any segment of the spectrum. It's the basic rules of wifi. The classical way of dealing with spectrum is based on old technology where they gave you an exclusive slice of the spectrum, and only you could use that spectrum. Modern technology where you have smart radios allows you to share spectrum, like in wifi. This works spectacularly well."

  • "Coming soon, a super regulator for spectrum," by Joji Thomas Philip, Economic Times, 23 June 2009: "...In a bid to end controversies over allocation and pricing of spectrum, the Department of Telecom (DoT) has proposed to present before Parliament the 'Spectrum Act', modelled on the lines of the Trai Act that led to the creation of the telecom regulator, department officials said. 'A comprehensive "Spectrum Act" through an Act of Parliament (similar to the Trai Act) providing a legal basis for the assignment, monitoring, valuation, pricing, relocation and withdrawal of spectrum, is urgently needed to manage this scarce resource more efficiently,' DoT said in an internal note, which ET managed to gain access to. The note lists out the department's plans to overhaul its Wireless Planning and Coordination (WPC) wing..."
  • "Govt panel suggests long-term policy to manage spectrum" by Rishi Raj, Financial Express, 9 March 2007: "Amidst raging fights over how much of spectrum should be allocated to operators and when, a government appointed committee has suggested that long-term planning on spectrum allocation, utilisation should be done through public-private partnership (PPP)... At present, all spectrum-related matters are handled by the wireless planning and coordination (WPC) wing in the department of telecommunications (DoT), headed by the wireless advisor. However in the recent years, the organisation has not been able to perform its role to the desired level... The group, to be named Centre of Excellence for Spectrum Management, would also be able to guide wireless users on how best they could organise and plan their networks/services to ensure economic, efficient and optimal utilisation of spectrum..."
  • "Broadband to go free in 2 yrs," by Joji Thomas Philip, The Economic Times, 26 April 2007: "The government proposes to offer all citizens of India free, [2MB/s] high-speed broadband connectivity by 2009, through the state-owned telecom service providers BSNL and MTNL. While consumers would cheer, the move holds the potential to kill the telecom business as we know it... Senior government officials expect to be able to achieve this [connectivity] spending only a portion of the corpus of the Universal Service Obligation Fund (USOF). All telecom operators contribute 5% of their revenues every year to USOF..."
  • "Information and Communications Technology: Progress in the Tenth Plan (2003-2008) - Midterm Appraisal," Ministry of Communications and Information Technology, May 2006: "With a view to encourage broadband connectivity, both outdoor and indoor usage of low power Wi-Fi and Wi-Max systems in 2.4 GHz-2.4835 GHz band has been delicensed. The use of low power indoor systems in 5.15-5.25 GHz and 5.725-5.875 GHz bands has also been de-licensed in January, 2005... For outdoor use, the band 5.25-5.35 GHz shall be de-licensed in consultation with DoS and [outdoor] delicensing in the band 5.15-5.25 GHz would be considered after the process of vacation... the following policy initiatives would help in ushering in broadband communication connectivity and help in providing Internet access and services at international standards: Delicensing of radio spectrum for use by wireless communications..."
  • "Use of low power Equipment in the frequency band 2.4 GHz to 2.4835 GHz (Exemption from Licensing Requirement) Rules, 2005, Ministry of Communications and IT, 28 January 2005: license is no longer required if transmitter output is 1 watt or less; EIRP is 4 watts or less; antenna is 5m or less "above the roof top of [an] existing authorized building..."
  • "Decentralization of 'Equipment Type Approval' (ETA) in delicensed frequency bands," Office Memorandum No.R-11020/02/2008-LR (2 February 2009), Wireless Planning & Coordination Wing, Department of Telecommunications, Ministry of Communications and IT.
  • G.S.R 46 (E): "Indoor Use of low power wireless equipment in the frequency band 5 GHz (Exemption from Licensing Requirement) Rules, 2005," Ministry of Communications and IT, 28 January 2005: no license needed for indoor use of equipment with EIRP of 200mW or less; outdoor use permitted only "within the single contiguous campus of an individual, duly recognised organisation or institution."
  • "Govt delicenses 50 MHz of spectrum in 5.8 GHz band for WiMAX use," by Joji Thomas Philip, Economic Times, 19 February 2007.
  • Footnotes added to India's national frequency allocation table in 2005:
    • IND 55A: "Use of low power equipments for Wireless Access Systems including Radio Local Area Networks, in the frequency band 5.150-5.350 GHz and 5.725-5875 GHz using a maximum mean Effective Isotropic Radiated Power of 200 mW and a maximum mean Effective Isotropic Radiated Power density of 10 mW/MHz in any 1 MHz bandwidth, for the indoor applications has been delicenced."
    • IND 55B: "Requirement of indoor and outdoor Wireless Access Systems including RLAN may be considered, on a case to case basis, in the frequency bands 5470-5725 MHz with a maximum mean EIRP of 1W and a maximum mean EIRP density of 50 mw/MHz in any one MHz band."
  • "Unwiring India," by Akhtar Pasha, Express Computer Online, 22 June 2007: a survey of recent wireless infrastructure developments, including municipal Wi-Fi projects and commercial WiMAX.
  • "Indian government calls in IT experts to decide on new toll system," Traffic Technology Today, 3 February 2010: "The Indian government has decided to call in senior IT experts, including UIDAI [Unique Identification Authority of India] chairman Nandan Nilekani, to develop an India-specific method of toll collection on highways... The three pilot projects will adopt different technologies (microwave, infrared and RFID) and the most suitable for a nationwide roll-out will be selected by the committee..."
  • "Wi-Fi offload set to boom in India," by Gagandeep Kaur, Light Reading Asia, 11 May 2011: "...The operators, still hampered by the relative scarcity of available licensed spectrum in India, need an offload strategy as they experience increasing volumes of data traffic on their networks, and using Wi-Fi as an alternative data access method makes sense as the popularity of Wi-Fi-enabled smartphones increases... Aircel Ltd. recently launched 50,000 Wi-Fi hotspots around India and has brokered partnerships with Wi-Fi specialist O-Zone Networks Pvt. Ltd. and wireless ISP Tikona Digital Networks Pvt. Ltd. to offer public Wi-Fi services to its subscribers... Bharti Airtel Ltd. has also hooked up with O-Zone, which is in discussions with Vodafone Essar and Idea Cellular Ltd... [A]ccording to O-Zone's Sarin, poor 3G network quality is already emerging as a headache for India's operators and, as a result, is fuelling demand for Wi-Fi connectivity. 'The operators are already experiencing signal penetration trouble with 3G. They would need Wi-Fi to counter this problem,' says the CEO, who claims to be in talks with most of the operators as well as device manufacturers... In addition, Reliance Communications Ltd. is also believed to be in discussions with Wi-Fi service providers..."
  • "Wi-Fi To Gain," by Rashmi Raveendran, DQ Channels, 27 May 2006: "Ranajoy Punja, VP - Business Development, Advanced Technologies, Cisco, India and SAARC stated, 'The market in India has been growing at a compound annual growth rate of 40 percent and is expected continue to grow in the same vein. The Wi-Fi network [hardware] market is presently around $40 million and should touch around $275 million in 2011. The overall Wi-Fi market is growing at an even bigger pace...' [The] entire ecosystems, which comprise of hardware, software and system integration services providers, benefit as the market grows from $41 million in 2006 to $745 million in 2012, as estimated by Tonse Telecom... [But] steps need to be taken by the government to remove the barriers that have arisen such as low power level - the de-licensed 2.4GHz devices [are] restricted to 100 million watts of radiated power output (26dBm). Hotspots in public areas still need licenses from the WPC... The outdoor use of the same spectrum requires a license. Also, the spill over of signals to a public area (like roads or streets) is liable to punishment..."
  • "Wi-Fi market to touch $1b by 2012," by Bhaskar Hazarika, Financial Chronicle, 3 May 2009: "Wi-Fi Alliance has forecast $1 billion Wi-Fi market in India by 2012. Mobile phone and consumer electronic products will drive the Wi-Fi market in India. Edgar Figueroa, executive director of Wi-Fi Alliance said... that mobile handsets are expected to grow at 33 per cent and consumer electronics by 25 per cent by 2012. At present, the Indian Wi-Fi market is pegged at $450 million. The $1 billion market includes WLAN network gear, system integration and system integration tools and professional services. This excludes embedded chipsets in laptops and other devices. 'Wi-Fi enabled smartphones are expected to grow at 49.5 per cent CAGR between 2008 and 2012, more than double the rate of the category as a whole. With mobile penetration increasing in the rural market of the country, we expect growth will take place in this category. The 400 million mobile subscriber base will bring about the growth in the market,' Figueroa said..."
  • "Wi-fi set to take India by storm" by Joji Thomas Philip,, 8 February 2005: "The trigger is the government's move to delicense the 2.4 Ghz and 5.1 Ghz bands..."
  • "DoT wants Internet service providers to register all Wi-Fi users," by Thomas K. Thomas, The Hindu Business Line, 1 May 2009
  • DoT Regulation No. 820-1/2008-DS Pt.II (dated 23 February 2009) forbids open Wi-Fi sites and makes the identification and registration of all Wi-Fi routers and users compulsory for all: "In the recent past concerns have been raised that Wi-Fi networks were being misused by anti-social elements. Insecure Wi-Fi networks are capable of being misused without any trail of user at a later date. In order to address the issue related to insecure Wi-Fi network, all the Internet Service Providers are hereby instructed to follow the following procedure for the secure use of Wi-Fi services under the delicensed frequency band in the interest of security of the nation with immediate effect..."
  • "Mumbai police to hunt for unsecured Wifi connections," IT Examiner, 9 January 2009: "City police will soon be seen roaming the Mumbai streets with laptops in their hands, in search of unsecured Wifi connections. In an initiative taken by the Mumbai police, against the backdrop of terror mails sent before blasts and terror attacks, police will be sent to various locations in the city in search of unsecured Wifi connections. 'If a particular place's Wifi is not password-protected or secured, then the policemen at the spot has the authority to issue notice to the owner of the Wifi connection directing him to secure the connection,' deputy commissioner of police (DCP) Sanjay Mohite told PTI. The notice will be issued by the police under section 149 of the Criminal Procedure Code (CrPC), which is to prevent the commission of a cognisable offence..."
  • From, 5 May 2005: "Internet service provider Dishnet Wireless Ltd. said it aims... to be India's largest WiFi provider, targeting 200,000 subscribers with 6,000 hotspots in 38 cities under the brand name Red by the end of 2006..."
  • "Meet the man on a Wi-Fi mission," by Leslie D'Monte, Rediff, 2 February 2007: "It's the Year of Broadband in India and Frank Hanzlik, [managing director] of the Wi-Fi Alliance, wants Wi-Fi to rise above the din created by WiMax..."
  • "US firm to herald net access in rural India," by Partha Sinha, Times of India, 5 September 2005: "...If United Villages Inc (UV), a US-based low-cost internet service provider, is allowed by government to set up base in India, rural WiFi broadband will soon become a reality... UV has developed a communication technology that provides internet access using mobile vehicles that connect to already set up hubs. As the vehicles drive through rural areas, wireless communication equipment within them automatically exchange data with access devices in each village... Using UV's mobile internet technology, acronymed VAN (Village Area Network), people in the rural area can send and receive email and voicemail, and can also browse through cached information from the web and local intranets, the company said in its FIPB application. The technology has already been tested in Haryana and Karnataka, and if the company gets the government nod, an all-India roll out will follow..."
  • "ISPs call for removal of spectrum licence [for WiMax]" by Joji Thomas Philip, Business Standard, 4 July 2005.
  • "Spectrum issues dog WiMAX uptake," by Joji Thomas and Moumita Bakshi Chatterjee, Economic Times (New Delhi), 14 November 2006. The WiMAX Forum "will soon set up a regional chamber" in India to argue for Indian service providers to be awarded 20MHz channels in the 2.50 - 2.69 GHz band, rather than 15MHz channels in the 3.30 - 3.40 GHz band, as recommended by TRAI.
  • "BSNL, Defence, Space asked to vacate spectrum by '07" Economic Times, 27 August 2006: " 'On implementation of the recommendations, a total 45+45 Mhz (20+20 Mhz in GSM 1800 Mhz band and 25+25 Mhz in IMT 2000 band (1920-1980 Mhz paired with 2110-2170 Mhz) is likely to be released by the Defence,' [according to the Optical Fibre Cable Project Definition Team's report.] The roadmap says additional 20 Mhz of spectrum (paired) is expected to be released by defence services in the 1800 Mhz band through the implementation of the Optical Fibre Network, another 25 Mhz in 1920-1980 (3G band) through implementation of OFC network by the end of this year. According to the report, BSNL will also have to vacate the complete 3G band all over India. It also said the Department of Space will have to release about 95 Mhz of spectrum in 2500-2690 Mhz band for WiMax services and another 150 Mhz in the 3400-3600 Mhz band for the same services by 2006-end."
  • "WPC Restrictions on Grant of License," by Maj. General (Retd.) L Tahiliani, Voice & Data, 16 August 2001: "...Sometime in early 1998, the Department of Telecommunications (DoT) instructed WPC not to issue licenses for radios operating [in the 2.4 GHz ISM band] beyond a speed of 64 Kbps. For higher speeds, a NOC is required from DoT. This was perhaps done to prevent loss of revenue to DoT [now BSNL]... [As of August 2001] WPC continues to grant licenses only for 64 Kbps circuits, allowing usage of 5 MHz spectrum... A verification of records in the DoT will reveal that NOC for grant of license of higher speeds was done in only one case i.e. for Dr Reddy�s Lab... Both STPI and VSNL provide connectivity at speeds varying from 64 to 512 Kbps and above. Both being government enterprises perhaps have been allowed this liberty. Is it fair to restrict private ISPs to only 64 Kbps? There is no level playing field. And this is contrary to what was promised to the ISPs when they applied for licenses... Appreciating the need for higher speed requirements, NFAP 2000 allows usage up to 10 MHz spectrum..."
  • "Tide of paper swamps wireless signal" by Reshma Patil and Pragya Singh, India Express, 6 February 2005: this article describes the paperwork needed for an outdoor wi-fi license before the rule changes noted above and below: 35 copies of the application, onsite visits by police to confirm facts in the application, up to a one-year wait for approval.
  • "Google Earth Mash-up Helps Mesh Mumbai" by Ray Le Maistre, Light Reading, 21 March 2007: "Where Google Earth comes into play is in the network planning. Mumbai is a very densely built and populated city, so [the LifeStyle Networks Ltd.] team has used the Google mapping service to work out where the radios should be positioned so that the whole city can be covered with a signal that will offer, initially, up to 2-Mbit/s connectivity using unlicensed 2.4 GHz spectrum..."
  • "Wi-Fi takes off across India," Telecom Asia, March 2005: "India now has more than 300 public hotspots, with 75% in Bangalore. 'These are likely to hit 1,500 by the yearend,' points out Nareshchandra Singh..."
  • "India's rural masses have embraced latest wi-fi technology, say experts," The Hindu, 4 May 2003.
  • "Why WiFi is So Hot" by Prasanto Kumar Roy, Cyber India Online, 30 June 2003.
  • "Why the Wi-Fi revolution failed in India" by Prashant L Rao, Express Computer Online, 1 November 2004, looks at why wi-fi is spreading so slowly in India. Main reasons are "the high cost of Wi-Fi enabled notebooks" and the fact that "Indians pay more for wireless access than almost anybody else. As per IDC, India generates the highest average income from each hot spot among APAC countries..."
  • The Future for Wi-Fi in India: Opportunities and Challenges, by Tonse Telecom for the WiFi Alliance, January 2007 (62 pages): "The Indian Wi-Fi market is on the cusp of a huge growth curve... The combined Wi-Fi market (described as consisting of WLAN networking gear, systems integration, professional services and not including embedded devices and laptops) is expected to grow into $744 million by 2012 (CAGR of 61.4%). In 2005, Indian WLAN market (described as consisting of wireless LAN network gear) stood at $23.11 million... As the number of Internet users grow in India Wi-Fi is expected to become ubiquitous across the metros and start emerging in smaller towns as well... VoWi-Fi (VoIP) market is currently regulated. Once the sector opens up, this opportunity will be extremely large..."
  • "Indian Bluetooth takes a big bite" by K.C. Krishnadas, EE Times (via CommsDesign), 28 September 2005: "Indian technology companies view Bluetooth technology with mixed feelings, with some having dropped out of the development race while others continue to bet on its future... Bluetooth technology developed in India is already on-board some of the world's highest volume consumer products..."
  • "India sees the benefit of Bluetooth," by Chitra Giridhar, EDN Asia (via Electronics Weekly), 28 April 2006.
  • "DoT may de-licence spectrum for RFID," by Thomas K. Thomas, Hindu BusinessLine, 15 July 2009: "Global technology majors, including IBM Corp, Hewlett-Packard, NXP Semiconductors and Ricoh Infoprint, have approached the Department of Telecom seeking de-licensing the use of spectrum for Radio Frequency Identification Devices (RFID). The companies have sought permission to use 13.56 Mhz frequency band in line with global trends... There is a small hitch, however. The National Frequency Allocation Plan (NFAP), which governs spectrum usage in the country, does not have any provisions to use 13.56 Mhz in a licence-free environment. DoT officials said the issue would be discussed with the Wireless Advisor and taken to the NFAP review meeting... 'We may consider de-licensing the frequency band 13.56 Mhz with 14 Khz bandwidth and with maximum 7.5 milli watt maximum mean effective radiative power output on non-interference, no protection and non-exclusive basis,' said a DoT internal note..."
  • "Wild jumbos to get radio collars in Kerala," Press Trust of India, 23 April 2011: "...The state wildlife department has decided to use 'radio collaring' to track rogue elephants in view of human-animal conflicts on the increase in forest fringes of the state... The department is planning to implement the project in Wayanad and Nilambur forests, where the man-elephant conflicts are reported high, on an expirimental basis in the initial stage. As per the records, there have been 21 elephant-caused deaths in these ranges last year alone. Besides the human casualities, the crop loss and other damages caused by the animals have also been reported. The radio-collar project will be extended to other places after examining the report from these places, a top forest offical said."
  • "Now no more bribes to obtain driving licenses in India, courtesy RFID," RFID Weblog, 15 July 2008.
  • From Broadband Policy 2004: " has been decided in principle to de-licence 2.40-2.48 GHz band for low-power outdoor use on non-protection, non-interference and non-exclusive basis. Necessary notification shall be issued. Further, notification regarding delicensing 2.40-2.4835 MHz band for low power indoor permitting use of all technologies, which inter-alia include those based on IEEE 802.11b and 802.11g standards, has been issued. To accelerate penetration of Broadband and Internet, the 5.15-5.35 GHz band shall be de-licensed for the indoor use of low power Wi-Fi systems. For outdoor use, the band 5.25-5.35 GHz shall be de-licensed in consultation with DoS and delicensing in the band 5.15-5.25 GHz would be considered after the process of vacation. Alternative spectrum bands which are not in high usage and could be deployed for Broadband services, shall also be explored and identified."
  • "Tragedy Of The Spectrum: Government needs to hot sync with technology," The Financial Express, 18 August 2004: Open Spectrum and the de-licensing of outdoor Wi-fi.
  • "Spectrum auctions in India: lessons from experience," by R.S. Jain, published in Telecommunications Policy, Vol. 25 (2001), pages 71-688: what went wrong in India's auctions.
  • Wireless Planning and Coordination Wing, Ministry of Communications and Information Technology, with links to:
  • "Ready for Radio?" by Pratima Harigunani, CIOL, 19 January 2007. Interview with Ashim A. Patil on RFID in India: "We are present in four bands: the LF which is less than 135 KHz and is used for animal identification, the HF which is 13.56 MHz, a worldwide standard that has an orbit of one metre, the UHF which is what government de-licensed some time back in the 865 to 867 MHz range and which finds usage in supply chain and logistics areas. The 2.45 GHz is the active RFID spectrum, which gives a read distance up to 30 feet and high speed that is used for automatic vehicle identification and container tracking. As of now, the spectrum available is adequate..."
  • "Gemini TRAZE sets up India's first high volume fully automated RFID TAG manufacturing facility at Chennai," Gemini press release (via ClickPress), 13 March 2007.
  • "AllGo to introduce Zigbee in India," by Priya Padmanabhan, CIOL, 16 March 2007: "The two-year old Bangalore-based firm, started by a group of Motorola engineers, offers DSP algorithms and solutions in areas like multimedia applications and wireless baseband... Staffed with just 18 engineers, AllGo (that signifies technology or solutions for the mobile or on-the-go segment) made revenues of $1 million in the first year of its operations and is looking at a growth rate of 50-60 per cent this year..."
  • Broadband India: Recommendations on Accelerating Growth of Internet and Broadband Penetration, Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI), 29 April 2004. See Section 3.7.2 ("Promoting Usage of Unlicensed Bands") and Recommendation (de-licensing outdoor use of 2.4 and 5 GHz for IEEE 802-series wireless data networks).
  • Recommendations on Spectrum related issues, TRAI, 13 May 2005 (142 pages). Discussion is narrower than the title suggests, as TRAI's focus is on GSM, CDMA and IMT-2000 mobile telephony, and the government's goal of 200 million mobile subscribers by 2007. No discussion of license exemption, except for the possibility of mobile telephone operators using Wi-Fi to extend their networks and alleviate congestion in their licensed bands.
  • Draft Recommendations on Unified Licensing, TRAI (6 August 2004): "...for the growth of Internet and Broadband services unlicensed spectrum usage will have to be encouraged. The development of technology may also bring more and more services under the ambit of services using unlicensed spectrum..." (page 15).
  • "Time for a new spectrum model" by John C. Tanner,, 3 November 2004.
  • "Wireless LAN effective for rural connectivity," Cyber India Online Ltd., 26 December 2001: "Using the unlicensed spectrum creatively can catapult India into the top league in telecom revolution..."
  • Working Group on Information Technology for the Masses - recommendations.
  • "Reconfigurable WLAN Transceiver Using Software Radio" by Ajay Mahimkar, University of Mumbai, presented at the SDR Forum's Technical Conference in San Diego, California, November 2002 (6 pages).
  • "Tech Tutorial: Software Defined Radio," Express Computer, 16 October 2006.
  • "Alereon Expands into India; Opens R&D Facility in Pune for UWB Chipsets," Alereon press release, 7 May 2007.
  • "Excerpts from the historic judgement in 1995 which stated that the air waves are not the monopoly of the Indian government (Secretary, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting vs Cricket Association of Bengal),"
  • "In Rural India, a Passage to Wirelessness," by Saritha Rai, New York Times, 4 August 2001 (the arrival of mobile telephony).

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