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  • "The Impact of an Open Spectrum," by Onno W. Purbo (September 2006), in English.
  • "People's Power on the Liberation of 2.4GHz Band," by Onno W. Purbo (2009).
  • "Notes from the Field: The Foundation of Cultural Change in Indonesia," by Onno W. Purbo and Matthew Walton, in Information Technologies & International Development, Volume 6 (Special Edition 2010), pages 45-48.
  • "Cisco enables PT Telkom to become a Wi-Fi leader in Asia," Cisco press release, 5 December 2012. If PT Telkom's targets are reached, this would be Asia's largest Wi-Fi buildout by a single carrier. According to Badriyanto, Executive General Manager of the Wireless Broadband Division at PT Telkom, "Our initial target of deploying 100,000 Wi-Fi access points this year has been to offload risk of overpopulated and congested 3G data traffic in malls, airports, and other high-density areas... we expect to scale out to 1 million Wi-Fi access points."
  • WiFi "Innovation" in Indonesia: Working Around Hostile Market and Regulatory Conditions, by Divakar Goswami and Onno Purbo, World Dialogue on Regulation, Discussion Paper WDR0611, May 2006 (47 pages). From the Executive Summary: "The research objectives were to determine the conditions that gave rise to Wi-Fi becoming an access technology of choice for Indonesian ISPs; the lessons that can be abstracted from Indonesian Wi-Fi innovations; and the steps that must be taken for the next stage of Internet growth in Indonesia..."
  • "Regulation on WLAN 2.4 GHz in Indonesia" by Azhar Hasyim, Director of Frequency Spectrum Planning, Directorate General of Post and Telecommunications, Indonesia. Powerpoint presentation at the APEC Telecommunications Working Group Meeting, Thailand, 3-8 April 2005. Dr. Hasyim notes that Indonesia's Telecommunications Act number 36 of 1999 (English version here) requires that all use of radio frequencies be licensed. The liberalisations noted below for Wifi are exceptions to the law which were authorised by Ministerial Decrees. License-exempt Wi-fi power output is now limited to 4 watts EIRP outdoors and 500 milliwatts EIRP indoors. Licensed microwave links in the 2.3 - 2.5 GHz band should migrate to other parts of the spectrum by the end of 2006.
  • "Kepmenhub Pembebasan 2,4GHz Diteken," Bisnis Indonesia, 18 January 2005, posted on the Ministry of Communication and Information website (in Indonesian): announces the de-licensing of commercial Wi-fi hotspots, effective from 1 January 2005, which outmodes the business tariffs described in the next reference. This article also notes that regional, provincial and city governments may have local restrictions or tariffs on 2.4 GHz band use which the national government can only monitor.
  • "Community radio stations ordered off the airwaves," by Adisti Sukma Sawitri, The Jakarta Post, 15 March 2007: "The country is notorious for the inefficient use of its radio frequency spectrum, with cell phone and television networks now operating in the same general frequency range.... [Information and Communications Ministry spokesman Gatot S. Dewa Broto] said frequency confusion in Indonesia was caused by the weak and redundant regulations on radio waves..."
  • Asia Telecommunication Newsletter, 28 May 2003, on Indonesia's Wi-fi policy before 1 January 2005. From the US State Department: "Private non-commercial use of 2.4 GHz is allowed without a license. However, operators must register with the Ministry of Communications (MOC), which will check the equipment to ensure it is standard... Indonesia does not plan to authorize Wi-fi services as low-power devices... All commercial uses of Wi-fi require licenses of some type. For example, any Internet Service Provider (ISP) or cellular provider would need to have a license to operate their business and pay an additional annual Wi-fi fee to the MOC. MOC charges runs from RP 2 million, or $240 (RP 8300/$) per base station for 2.4 GHz to ten times that amount for 3.5 GHz and higher frequency ranges. There are only five licenses available for 5.7 GHz.... by fall 2003 applications for licenses will be made with the Ministry of Industry and Trade."
  • "...'In Indonesia, WiFi is not only used as an access network by Internet service providers (ISPs) to reach customers' houses, but also as a backbone network to haul Internet traffic over large distances,' said director of organizational development and projects of LIRNEasia, Divakar Goswami, recently... In Indonesia, said Goswami, many ISPs used WiFi at the 5.8 GHz frequency, suitable for long range communications of up to a 60-km radius, to connect customers to cyberspace - a free but illegal practice, as the government has yet to liberate the frequency..." ---from "'Innovative' approach prom otes use of WiFi in RI" by Leony Aurora, The Jakarta Post, 14 November 2005.
  • "An Indonesian Digital Review - Internet Infrastructure and Initiatives" by Onno W. Purbo, 2003. Discussion of business (rather than spectrum) licensing on pages 16-20. "Most, if not all, the time, we run the equipments without any license from the government. Fortunately, the Indonesian media helps keep us from being jailed..."
  • "More Telkom Hot-Spots on the Way," Jakarta Globe, 30 August 2011: "PT Telekomunikasi Indonesia Tbk. is preparing thousands of hot-spots in various locations across the country to help people access internet services quickly. The executive general manager of Telkom Customer Service for the Eastern Area, Sukardi Silalahi, said... of about 5,400 hot-spots to be built by Telkomsel, 516 have already been installed. Meanwhile 312 Speedy hot-spots are operational out of a planned 2,000 to be set up in East Java and eastern Indonesia..."
  • "E. Java closes down two unlicensed radio stations," The Jakarta Post, 18 January 2011: "The East Java provincial government had closed down its two [FM] radio stations because they did not possess broadcasting licenses, an official said Tuesday. Head of the communications and information agency Sudjono said that the provincial government closed down Radio Pendidikan (Education Radio) and JT FM to comply with the regulation. 'KPID [The Regional Indonesian Broadcasting Commission] says that that all requirements must be fulfilled. Before they are completely fulfilled, broadcasting should be stopped,' he was quoted by as saying. JT FM, which has been on air for 20 years, was the provincial government's [portal] to communicate government policies. The East Java KPID noted that 300 radio stations in the province, including 15 in Surabaya, did not have broadcasting licenses..."
  • "Kekalahan 3G, Kemenangan WiFi di Kawasan Eropa," by Onno Purbo, Kompas Online, 30 May 2005 - Open Spectrum news from Europe, including a report about our board of advisors' meeting in London.
  • "Onno builds bridges across the digital divide" by Vishnu K. Mahmud, The Jakarta Post (in English), 16 November 2003.
  • Forum Kumunikasi Asosiasi Indonesia Wireless LAN Internet dan komunitas Telematika - very active online discussion about wireless Internet and community networks in Indonesia (in Indonesian).
  • "Tentang Penggunaan Frekuansi 2400-2483,5 MHz (2,4 GHz) Untuk Keperluan Akses Wireless LAN Internet Bagi Penggunaan Di Luar Gedung" (Draft regulations for outdoor sharing of the 2.4 GHz band for wireless Internet access), in Indonesian, 2003.
  • Wireless Archive at the Indonesian Digital Knowledge Foundation (IDKF).
  • "Indonesia to install wi-fi facilities in 500 hot spots," Asia Pulse/Antara via Asia Times, 25 March 2004.
  • "WiFi Bridges Indonesia's Digital Divide" by Craig Liddell,, 17 March 2003.
  • "Wireless internet era comes to big cities," by Sari P. Setiogi, The Jakarta Post, 8 December 2003: "Last October, several companies established the Indonesian Wi-Fi Consortium, dedicated to the development and promotion of Wi-Fi across the country. CBN, Acer Indonesia, Cisco System Indonesia, Elexmedia Komputindo, Intel Indonesia Corporation, Microsoft Indonesia and Polaris NET are in the consortium..."
  • "Sejarah RAPI," (CB History) in English: According to this webpage, CB came to Indonesia in 1977 and quickly got popular even though it was not officially permitted. In October 1980, a nongovernmental licensing organization for CB was established by decree No.S.1. 11/HK.501/Phb-80 and confirmed by Director General of Post and Telecommunication Decree No.125/Dirjen/1980. The name of this organization is RAPI = "Radio Antar Penuduk Indonesia" = Inter-population Radio Communication. In 1985 the government decided to close the 26 MHz CB band and move everyone to UHF. But a new telecom law in 1989 gave RAPI both 26.96-27.45 MHz and 142-143.6 Mhz. Decree SK.Dirjen Postel No.92/Dirjen/94 (25 July 1994) defined the CB bands as 26.96-27.41 MHz, 476.41-477.415 Mhz and 142-143.6 Mhz. A current band plan can be found on Wikipedia's page for CB in Indonesia. CB is not license exempt in Indonesia.

Asia & Pacific - Regional Overview