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스펙트럼 관리정책의 변화와 그 시사점 (Recent changes in spectrum management policy and their implications) by Yongkyu Kim and Myeong-Ho Lee, Korean Journal of Information and Communication Policy Research, volume 13, number 1 (March 2006), pages 101-123 (in Korean). This article reviews spectrum management trends in the US and UK, and calls for more fundamental research in South Korea on the conflicting models of spectrum as commons or as tradable property.
"RFID for Postal and Courier Services 2011-2021," Research and Markets (bia BusinessWire, 23 February 2011: "...There is even a postal RFID system that completely automates the whole process of mail delivery from accepting the package to classification and dispatching. It has been successfully tested in Korea this year. Korea Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute ETRI demonstrated this RFID system in front of representatives from the Ministry of Information and Technology and private sector representatives... The new RFID system, developed by ETRI of Korea, aims to reduce costs, errors and tedious human intervention. When perfected, it will provide a comprehensive electronic postal system with the potential to maximize mail package process capabilities while minimizing logistics cost. Real-time information automation, impossible with the existing system, is now possible, claims ETRI..."
According to "Frequency Band Overview for 860-960MHz..." by Hyungsoo Lee, Cheolhyo Lee and Jaeyoung Kim (ETRI, September 2004), South Korea has no ISM band between 860 and 960 MHz, but there are bands set aside for specific license exempt device types in this range, e.g., cordless phones (914-915 and 959-960 MHz) and wireless microphones (928-930 and 950-952 MHz). They add that the "Korean Government will assign 908.5-914MHz frequency band to motivate RFID industries in Oct 2004..." Other sources indicate that happened.
"Wi-Fi zones expect increase to 100,000," by In-hyuk Hwang, Jae-kwon Sohn and Yoojung Lee, MK Business News, 12 May 2010: "South Korea's government is poised to enlarge the current number of Wi-Fi service available areas by seven times to 100,000 by 2012, in an effort to popularize wireless internet. South Korea currently has mere 13,800 Wi-Fi zones, but will be able to reign as the world No. 1 in terms of Wi-Fi capability when its service zones surge to about 100,000, outstripping the United States, which operates approximately 70,000 zones..."
"Seoul to offer free wifi in public areas," by Kim Jae-Hwan, Agence France Presse (via Yahoo!), 15 June 2011: "The South Korean metropolis of Seoul said on Wednesday it would offer free wifi in outdoor spaces in a $44 million project to give residents and visitors Internet access on every street corner. Seoul will make its network available in 10,430 parks, streets and other public places by 2015, the city government said in a statement. Demand for wifi is booming amid the rapid spread of smartphones and tablet computers but outdoor coverage in the South Korean capital has so far been limited. 'Wifi service is unavailable at 83 percent of outdoor areas in Seoul... but it soon will be available at every street corner of the city,' the city government said. Three local wireless operators will invest 47.7 billion won ($44 million) for the project. All buses, subway trains and taxis in the city will be equipped to offer wireless Internet to passengers by the end of this year..."
"Half the World's Hot Spots," by Moon Ihlwan, BusinessWeek, 28 April 2003: "...no one should be surprised that in the competition to set up Wi-Fi hot spots, Korea is kilometers ahead of the pack... In the last 18 months, KT Corp., South Korea's former phone monopoly and its biggest broadband and Wi-Fi player, has set up 8,500 wireless commercial local-area networks, or hot spots. That's more than half the world's total, according to international IT research firm IDC. Thousands of universities, hotels, restaurants, and other public facilities in densely populated Korea boast Wi-Fi transmitters, and KT is just getting started. Earlier this year, the company earmarked $100 million to expand the number of local area networks to 16,000. 'The name of the game is to offer services allowing our subscribers to get on the Net anytime, anywhere,' says Jang Hyun Tae, KT's director of fixed-mobile convergence business... Some 112,000 of KT's fixed-line broadband subscribers have signed up for Wi-Fi, which costs $8.30 a month extra. A stand-alone Wi-Fi subscription costs $21 monthly, still less than in the U.S. and Europe. At the rate it is signing up subscribers, KT expects the number of users to jump from the current 157,000 to more than 1 million by the end of this year. Wi-Fi revenues for the year are expected to total $125 million... Global computer giants and big names in consumer electronics in Japan and Korea, including Sony Corp. and Samsung Electronics, are all pushing Wi-Fi technology. They want it to become the heart of snazzy home-networking systems that allow subscribers to control their home appliances and security devices remotely while they are on the move. If that high-tech vision ever becomes reality, guess which country is most likely to get there first?"
"Stricter control planned over wireless connection," by Kim Tong-hyung, Korea Times, 13 September 2009: "Government officials are considering imposing security requirements on users of wireless Internet access points (AP) at homes and offices, the Korea Communications Commission (KCC) said... The plans considered by the KCC include mandating username and password authentication for connecting to all access points. Individuals or companies using default usernames or passwords that are publically available or easy to guess will also be required to change their settings, officials said. There are about 3.15 million access points used by individual Internet users at homes, not counting the 1.65 million devices provided by telecommunications companies like KT and LG Dacom to their telephony and broadband Internet customers, according to government figures. 'We are more concerned about the devices used by individuals at homes than the access points installed by telecommunications companies,' a KCC official said..."
"KT misses Wi-Fi target,"Telecom Asia Daily, 18 August 2005 (Asia Pulse via NewsEdge): "...KT had hoped to attract one million subscribers to its Wi-Fi service, called 'Nespot' by the end of 2004." The actual customer base at the time of this report was around 500,000. "To spur demand, KT said it will increase the number of [WiFi] base stations from 13,000 to 16,000 nationwide..."
From 1 July 2005, a maximum duration of 10 years applies to all radio licenses in South Korea, even those issued to government agencies. From MIC's September 2005 regulatory update to APECTEL: "Previously, spectrum was allocated for certain purposes such as military communications for unspecified period of time. This made the withdrawal of unused spectrum very difficult and prevented efficient management of spectrum. Thus, the government set the validity of spectrum license within the range of ten years..."
The Ministry of Information and Communication's Radio Research Laboratory studies problems of band-sharing and interference, other countries' regulations, and propagation at 5GHz. Their website is mostly in Korean, but click here for their online library of Korean Radio Laws and Regulations (in English translation). Here is their ISM bands FAQ (in Korean).
"200X faster than Bluetooth, UWB and 60 GHz Wireless Communication coming year 2007" by Hyangseon Lee, ZDNet Korea, 11 July 2006: "South Korean MIC (Ministry of Information and Communication) just announced distribution of new frequency channels, local access UWB and 60 GHz bandwidth on July 10... The new [UWB] frequency channels announced by MIC are 3.1 - 4.8GHz (Low Band) and 7.2 - 10.2GHz (High Band) can be used in both indoor and outdoor without any separate communication permits... The announced MIC's new [60GHz] frequency channel is 57 to 64 GHz and... does not require any permit due to its low output levels. It is interesting since the new frequency channel (FACS: Flexible Access Common Spectrum) is open to anyone meeting the specification criteria... The current projection shows 60GHz bandwidth market will grow with full steam into over $5.2 Billion by year 2010 with standardization of WPAN (Wireless Personal Area Network) in 2007..."
"The Status of Korean UWB Regulation" - presented by ETRI at the 2nd meeting of the Asia-Pacific Telecommunity's Wireless Forum, 5-8 September 2005 (3 pages in English): "The regulation for the Korean emission mask level is relatively strict. In Korea, the use of unlicensed low power emission devices is restricted such that the upper limit of the allowable emission level is lower than the current FCC regulation by 25 dB. Therefore, without introducing a new regulatory plan, only limited applications of low-power devices will be allowed..."
"UWB 기술 개요 및 주파수 정책 동향," (UWB technical synopsis and frequency policy trend), by 주임연구원윤두영 and
연구원전수연, published in Information Communication Policy, volume 18, number 13, page 397 (18 July 2006) in Korean. Descriptions of current research projects and regulatory policies for UWB, emphasizing South Korea, the US, UK and the ITU.
Ubiquitous Busan Forum - a public-private partnership that promotes ubiquitous radio networks, with an emphasis on RFID and sensors. Website is only in Korean.
"Big Brother's Little Friend," by Hyejin Kim, NewsBlaze, 21 February 2006: "The South Korean government plans to issue RFID-equipped cards to travellers to the North, Yonhap News reported on Feb. 14. The new cards were tested on 30 people who crossed the border last December. The system is expected to reduce paperwork related to movement across the border and cut time for clearing customs. RFID cards will also be used to keep track of strategic equipment taken to North Korea. With the expansion of South Korean facilities in the North's Kaesong Industrial Complex, the system will relieve concerns about technology being diverted for military purposes. Travel and trade between South and North Korea are growing, and Seoul hopes to have the RFID system online within months. Eventually, RFID chips might be used in multi-functional card that serves as ID, passport, transit card, and cafeteria meal ticket. For better or worse, South Korea appears to be at the forefront of the move toward RFID."
"Korean Government Considers RFID Privacy,"Surpriv blog: RFID Surveillance and Privacy, 26 May 2005: "...South Korean government, through its Ministry of Information Communication, is working on guidelines for RFID privacy protection..."
"KT Corporation Deploys Firetide Wireless Mesh for Korean Weather Forecasting Network," Firetide press release, 12 December 2006: "Firetide Inc., a developer of wireless multi-service mesh technology, today announced that Korea's KT Corporation has successfully completed the first phase of installing the company's mesh technology covering portions of Jeju and Woo islands off the southern coast of Korea. The [2.4GHz] mesh network spans a large geographical area, covering 204 square kilometers, or 80 square miles, and replaces a legacy network provided by KT for the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) to monitor weather systems in the region. The mesh networks provide a fully wireless infrastructure that connects remote weather forecasting equipment and video cameras to the KMA's network..."