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  • Official English-language translation of Mongolia's Law on Licensing. According to Article 15.8.7, licenses are required to establish or use telecommunication networks and services. "This Law will be enforced from the 1st of January, 2002..."
  • Andrew McLaughlin spent 2 weeks in Mongolia for the Geekcorps in June 2003, and his diary was posted on Slate. In it he notes that "the regulatory authority has ruled that companies and users must obtain official licenses (and pay costly licensing fees) to use the 2.4 ghz range for any purpose. Even to set up a wireless home network requires government permission and the payment of fees. This policy can best be described as bonkers. As a practical matter, it forces Mongolians either to forgo the benefits of wireless networking or to go ahead and deploy wireless networks illegally. Predictably, many Mongolian companies are pursuing the latter tack, which gives rise to the kind of black-market activity that, over time, feeds corruption: Enforcement of the licensing requirement will tend to become arbitrary and subject to the payment of bribes..."
  • "ICT Sector Development in Five Central Asian Economies: A Policy Framework for Effective Investment Promotion and Facilitation" by John Ure (published in September 2005 by the UN's Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific): Mongolia is said to have "a messy and chaotic licensing free-for-all scheme overseen by the [Communications Regulatory Commission] CRC. A relatively high number of new licenses have been handed out, in broadcasting, in new wireless broadband technologies, and in 'disruptive' fixed-wireless convergence technologies... The 2.4-2.5 GHz range has been fully distributed... Ten WiFi & WiMax licenses have been handed out... The CRC acknowledges the problem [the 'chaotic licensing free-for-all'] by saying they 'can't seem to stop anyone, even if they don't have a license.... By law our main strategy has been to throw the market wide open, please come in'..." Elsewhere he quotes Transparency International's 2004 survey, which apparently showed a large increase in corruption since 1999.
  • "NSF Wireless Field Tests in Mongolia" by David R. Hughes and Dewayne Hendricks, October-November 1996.

Asia & Pacific - Regional Overview