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  • Plan Nacional de Atribución de Frecuencias (April 2002, in Spanish, 100 pages) - includes both radio regulations and allocations table. Article 12 covers wireless communication devices which do not require registration, including cordless phones, walkie-talkies, devices for the Family Radio Service at 462/467 MHz, remote controls, etc. Article 10 (spread spectrum) seems to require registration for Wi-fi devices, but the rule on which this is based (Resolution JD-1785) indicates that "registration" is what we would call "type approval." No spectrum use fee for indoor networks even if commercial/public.
  • "Panama launches [free wireless] Internet for all initiative," TeleGeography's CommsUpdate, 21 October 2009: "The Panamanian president, Ricardo Martinelli, has announced the launch of a new national internet project designed to bring free internet access to the country's population in a bid to reduce the digital divide. The first phase of the 'Internet For All' project will see access points installed in 500 locations across eleven of the country's cities: Penonome, Colon, Columbus, David, Chitre, Arraijan, La Chorrera, Santiago, Sona, Pese and the capital, Panama City. The announcement comes four days after the government inked a deal with local vendor Liberty Technologies which will see the latter deploy a combination of Wi-Fi and WiMAX technologies for this free internet access..."
  • "Red Nacional de Acceso Universal a Internet - Términos de Referencia" (National Network for Universal Internet Access - Terms of Reference), Secretary to the President for Governmental Innovation, August 2009 (in Spanish).
  • "Panama rolls out first phase of Internet for All project," Telecom Paper, 29 January 2010: "Over 328 Wi-Fi hotspots have already been deployed, with an additional 300 locations to be provided with free Wi-Fi connections by April, according to Panama's president Ricardo Martinelli. The first phase of the project covers 11 cities across the country, including Penonome, Colon, David, Chitre, Arraijan, Panama, La Chorrera, Santiago, Sona and Pese... Free internet access centres have been deployed at public schools, parks, libraries, community gyms, as well as municipal and government institutions. The Wi-Fi project is expected to benefit around 2.3 million users across Panama."
  • "Costa Rica to be a Wi-Fi Zone," Inside Costa Rica, 22 January 2011: "...Panama is developing [a large public Wi-Fi network] at a cost of US$25 million dollars. Panama began its free wireless internet access development project last year, bringing to everyone a mixed Wi-Max, a high speed and long range signal, while Wi-Fi is lower in speed and range. In Panama, a free internet signal is available in public places like health offices, municipalities and libraries, to name a few, offering a connection between 512 Kbps and 1 Mbps..."
  • "Communications in Panama" from the Wikipedia (no discussion of spectrum management, but good background).

Latin America & Caribbean - Regional Overview