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  • "Spectrum Management in Singapore," (3 February 2004) - press release with spectrum chart.
  • "IDA Opens 2.4 GHz Spectrum Band For Short Range Devices" - Infocomm Development Authority of Singapore (IDA) news release, 8 October 2001.
  • "IDA makes wireless networks cheaper" by Amit Roy Choudhury, Business Times, 21 January 2005 (via ITAsiaOne): the power output permitted for license-exempt WLANs has been raised from 100 to 200 mW in the 2.4 GHz band, and from 100 mW to 1000 mW in the 5.8 GHz band.
  • "Budget 2011: Radio and TV licence fees to be removed," AsiaOne, 18 February 2011: "Finance Minister Tharman Shanmugaratnam, at this year's Budget speech, announced that radio and TV licence fees [for receivers] will be permanently removed, as it has lost its relevance. With effect from January 2011, the S$110 annual licence fee for televisions, as well as the $27 annual fee for vehicle radios will be removed..."
  • Singapore offering free WiFi "almost everywhere." 11 October 2006.
  • "Singapore's Muni Wi-Fi Network Exceeds 1,000 Mesh Nodes," Converge Digest, 17 April 2007.
  • "Wireless piggybacking case sets precedent: experts," by Rachel Lim, Agence France Presse (via The Age, 26 March 2007: "When 17-year-old Garyl Tan Jia Luo piggybacked on his neighbour's unsecured wireless Internet network to chat online, he could not have imagined that in doing so he would make Asian legal history. Information technology (IT) experts and lawyers say Tan was the first in Singapore, and possibly Asia, to be sentenced in court for 'wireless mooching,' or piggybacking on an unsecured wireless network to surf the Internet. A judge in the city-state's district court sentenced him to 18 months' probation in January... The Singapore case may set a precedent in Asia and 'open the floodgates for similar prosecutions,' said Aloysious Cheang, president of the Special Interest Group in Security and Information Integrity, a Singapore information and communications security association. Moochers make up an estimated five to 10 percent of the region's wireless traffic at any time, said Bernie Trudel, principal security consultant at network firm Cisco Systems Asia Pacific..."
  • "45,000 sign up for free wireless Internet service," by Adeline Chia and Teh Joo Lin, Straits Times, 2 December 2006: "About 45,000 people signed up to surf the Net at 600 Wi-Fi hot spots around Singapore yesterday, the first day of a free wireless Internet service that will last three years. The service, called Wireless@SG, is being run by three operators -- SingTel, QMax Communications and iCell Network..."
  • IDA's Radio Spectrum Master Plan and "Short-Range Devices" (from Singapore's Spectrum Management Handbook): "Generally, short range devices are exempted from licensing if the transmitter output power is below the maximum approved field strength..."
  • "Technical Specification for Short Range Devices," IDA, 1 December 2004.
  • Asia Telecommunication Newsletter, 23 May 2003. From the US State Department: "The use of Wi-fi equipment without a license is subject to the following conditions: a) equipment must be IDA type-approved models; b) it is for intra-corporate usage only; and c) the frequency bands and transmission power must be in accordance to those set out in the Telecommunications (Radio-Communications) Regulations 2002. Licensing is required for the use of Wi-fi systems if: a) there is carriage of third-party traffic; b) it is not for localized usage... In addition, if there is carriage of third-party traffic and/or construction of telecommunication infrastructure, the appropriate services-based or facilities-based operator license may be required..."
  • "The Broadcasting (Class Licence) Notification," Singapore Media Development Authority. Originally adopted in 1996 (without public debate) and updated in 2001 and 2003, this says Internet access services and content are "licensable" in Singapore as a form of broadcasting. Everyone providing such services is automatically subject to a "class license" which requires them to comply with Singapore's "Internet Code of Practice." Among other things, this Code forbids the provision of access to material "objectionable on the grounds of public interest, public morality, public order, public security, [or] national harmony..." According to Paragraph 15 of the Notification, every licensee must "ensure that its service is not used to advertise, provide or otherwise promote astrology, geomancy; palmistry; or any other type of fortune-telling device; ...ensure that any professional advice... offered on its service is offered by persons with qualifications recognised by the relevant professional bodies in Singapore; ... ensure that only films and video recordings that are approved by the Board of Film Censors are broadcast... " etc. In addition, licensees need to register with the Government if they are "Individuals, groups, organisations [or] corporations engaged in providing any programme for the propagation, promotion or discussion of political or religious issues relating to Singapore on the World Wide Web..."
  • Sybase opens wireless R&D center in S'pore," by Lynn Tan, ZDNet Asia, 15 March 2007: "...Built at a cost of about US$1.5 million, the new research facility will focus on several areas including mobile middleware, Bluetooth, and RFID (radio frequency identification)..."
  • "Singapore UWB Programme Framework," by Dr. Tan Geok Leng, IDA, 3 March 2003: In 2003, IDA started issuing experimental UWB licenses for operation in the 2.2-10.6 GHz region. The UWB license imposes an emissions "mask" 6dB above the level permitted by the FCC's Part 15 regulations, but limits all tests to a "UWB Friendly Zone" in Science Park 2 - a zone that existed until 25 February 2005. No "type approval" for equipment, but must be non-interfering and enjoys no interference protection. See the presentations from the UWB in Singapore Seminar 2004 for reports on research activities under this programme.
  • "Higher power limits and wider spectrum for Singapore's RFID," RFID Journal, 5 November 2004: "The power limit for the revised frequency band of 866 to 869 MHz (formerly 866.1 to 869 MHz) in Singapore has been increased from 0.01 watts to 0.5 watts for RFID devices, which gives a read range of 2 to 3 meters (up from 0.6 meters). This will allow interoperability with tags in Europe, where RFID devices can use 2 watts of power and where regulations are being considered to allow RFID readers to operate between 865.6 MHz and 867.6 MHz. The power limit for the revised frequency band of 923 to 925 MHz (formerly 924 to 925 MHz) in Singapore has been increased from 0.1 watts to 2 watts, which gives a read range of 4 to 5 meters (up from 0.6 meters). This will allow interoperability with tags in the U.S., where RFID devices can use 4 watts and UHF systems operate between 902 and 928 MHz. The revisions are effective immediately.

Asia & Pacific - Regional Overview