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  • "Communications in Somalia," Wikipedia
  • "Telecom Firms Thrive in Somalia Despite War, Shattered Economy," by Abdinasir Mohamed and Sarah Childress, Wall Street Journal, 11 May 2010. Reprinted at Horseed Media, "the voice of free Somalia": "The rapid evolution of technology in Somalia - and people's access to it - comes as several telecommunications companies here jockey for customers amid the absence of any government-regulated phone or Internet access... The World Bank's Mr. Tintchev says the sector has become among the country's biggest revenue generators, and the service it provides has helped revive the economy. 'They became the economic enablers in Somalia,' he says. Four main telecommunications companies now operate in the country. The first private telecommunications company to open in Somalia was Telecom Somalia in 1994, a Hormuud rival that offers a range of wireless services..."
  • "Telecoms thriving in lawless Somalia" by Joseph Winter, BBC News, 19 November 2004: "...surfing the web is charged at 50 US cents an hour - 'the cheapest rate in Africa' according to the manager of one internet cafe. But how do you establish a phone company in a country where there is no government? In some respects, it is actually easier. There is no need to get a licence and there is no state-run monopoly which prevents new competitors being established... And of course there is no one to demand any taxes, which is one reason why prices are so low..."
  • "Somalia: Attacks on Mogadishu radio stations leave journalists in untenable situation," Reporters Without Borders press release (via, 19 September 2010: "...After pressuring the media over their coverage, after a wave of kidnappings of journalists, the insurgents are now attacking radio stations and either confiscating or taking control of their equipment. Radio stations, Somalia's most developed form of media, are being particularly targeted... For more information about yesterday's raids, read this press release by the National Union of Somali Journalists (NUSOJ), the Reporters Without Borders partner in Somalia. According to the transitional government in Mogadishu, they bring to five the number of radio stations that have been attacked or forcibly taken over by Islamist rebels... Such attacks are a complete violation of international law governing actions in wartime..."

Africa - Regional Overview