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  • Закон Туркменистана "О радиочастотном спектре" (Turkmenistani Law on Radio Spectrum), 15.06.2000, in Russian.
  • "Положение о лицензировании в области связи Утверждён постановлением Президента Туркменистана №4585 от 24.02.2000г" (Policy on Licensing in the Sphere of Communication, affirmed by Decision of the President of Turkmenistan, No. 4585 of 24.02.2000), in Russian.
  • "Turkmenistan: Overview of Wireless Communications Market," US Embassy cable, 19 March 2004:
    "Unlicensed bands from 2.4 to 2.5 GHZ are provided for conducting scientific research, medical services, and similar activities... The State Commission on Radio Frequencies (SCRF), headed by the Deputy Chairman of the Cabinet of Ministers for Communications, regulates the use of frequencies and wireless equipment. The Minister of Communications serves as his Deputy and handles issuance of licenses for wireless communications... Licenses are not required if wireless communications equipment is used for technological production purposes; if it is used for the defense, security, border-guard, and law-enforcement needs; or if it is installed in cars, ships, planes or other types of transportation for personal use... Registration and licensing procedures in Turkmenistan are known to be time consuming, expensive and opaque. Although licensing rules dictate that the Ministry of Communications consider license applications within thirty days of submission and issue an approval within three days, companies often have to wait for several months to get needed approvals from Turkmen authorities..."
  • says the one and only hotspot in this country is at the International Turkmen Turkish University in Ashgabat. Launched in April 2004, it is almost certainly not unlicensed.
  • "MTS takes BCTI ownership to 100%," TeleGeography, 2 November 2005: "Russian mobile group Mobile TeleSystems (MTS) has taken full control of Turkmenistan's dominant cellco Barash Communications Technologies Inc (BCTI), purchasing the 49% of the company it did not already own... BCTI is the only major wireless provider in the gas-rich central Asian country..."

Asia & Pacific - Regional Overview